- ISSN: 1971-2995
- Pagine: 232
- Abbrevazione assegnata da l'Année Philologique: IncidAntico
- Editore: Luciano Editore, Napoli
The concept of the region is gradually becoming appealing to ancient historians. The purpose of this article is to suggest some of the reasons behind this increasing appeal, to explore the various forms of regions that can be traced in Greek history (political, social, cultural, economic) and the nature of regional identities, and, finally, to propose some important caveats that should be taken into account in future work on Greek regions.
Region | Greek history | methodology | Peloponnese | identity
The article consists of a study of the various Greek sources speaking about the origin of the name of the land called Italía: while, according to Antiochus of Syracuse (FGrHist 555 FF 2-3; 5), the name derived from king 'Italos', Hellanicus of Lesbos and Timaeus of Tauromenium asserted, respectively, that it came from the indigenous term for the calf (???t?????; FGrHist 4 F 11) or from the Greek term for the bull (?ta???; FGrHist 566 F 42). By a careful analysis of these last two hypotheses, it is argued that the name Italía is a Greek form for the indigenous word which denotes the cattle. As consequence, the 'invention' of this name has to be connected to the image which eighth- and seventh-century Greeks had of the extreme southern part of Italy as a land particularly characterized by cattle-breeding.
Italía | king Italos | Antiochus of Syracuse | Hellanicus of Lesbos | Timaeus of Tauromenium
The various accounts of Miletus' foundation and the lists of the ancient names of the city belong to a complex process articulated on several levels: first, the foundation accounts reflect the perception of the community's beginning which each ethnic component had; second, the lists of the city's names arise from the need of each component of claiming its position in the Milesian community. The ethnic tension perceptible in these accounts would arise at the time of the birth of the polis.
Miletus | foundation accounts | lists of names | ethnic components | polis
Empedocles works seem to branch out in two main directions: cosmology from one side and daimonology from the other one. The aim of this piece of work is to look into the relationship between them: regardless of whether it should be attributed to Empedocles only a poem or two different pieces of work, a blending between a physical theory and demonological doctrines seems sure. Not only does a same structure define the cosmological and demonological cycles, both of them characterized by a dialectics between One and Many, but also the idea of a matter which is based on a principle of identity and dynamism relates the story of the daemon to events of interaction of the four roots. Moreover, a religious afflatus pervades Empedocles texts which can be inserted in a consolidated tradition. After having found out the nerve-centre points between the two outlooks, I will try to focus on Empedocles' theory of knowledge and on the physical and religious union which mostly characterizes the Greek naturalistic research between VII and V century BC.
Empedocles | cosmology | daimonology | physis | divine
Humiliated by Agamemnon's decision to take his share of booty, Briseis, away from him, Achilles, furious, insults violently the head of the Achaeans: “You wine sack, with a dog's eyes, with a deers heart” (Hom. Il. I 225). The recontextualisation of the three expressions in Homer's work enables to highlight their singular violence and their political and cultural dimension. By condemning the thoughtlessness, the impudence and the cowardice of Agamemnon, Achilles seems to expose, beyond the royal faults of Agamemnon, his lack of heroic Aidos. In the line 225, the insults against Agamemnon's body undermine his identity and sustain his bad reputation. They are the best warrior's weapons.
Insult | quarrel | fame | hero | Iliad
When Hekataios of Miletos speaks of Nola, a town of Campania near Naples, uses an apparent contradiction in terms: while he defines Nola as a polis belonging to the 'Ausones', some ancient writers considered the Ausones an indigenous people without poleis. We can assume that in the VI century BC Nola reached such a high level of 'urban' organization so as to share a cultural Mediterranean koine. The Greeks were the main intermediaries of this common culture, but not the only ones: through the grave goods some burials document the development of a Nolan community between VIII and VI century BC and the contacts between indigenous people, Greeks inhabiting the gulf of Cuma and some Etruscan groups settled in Campania. The result of this analysis allows us to put up for discussion the old concepts of hellenization and colonization, and to reflect carefully as to new notions of hibridity and creolization.
Nola | Ausones | Corinthian pottery | symposium | krater
In this paper various interpretations of the meaning of the Southern frieze of the Parthenon cell are reviewed and a new hypothesis, based on studies carried out on the equestrian discipline of the anthippasia, is formulated. First of all, we explain how Pericles' reforms of the cavalry affected Athenian society. Secondly, we identify on the frieze ten groups of knights, each one of around five elements, probably representing the Clisthenic tribes. Finally, we hypothize a presumable connection between the frieze of the Parthenon and the competition of the anthippasia. This conclusion is based on three different motivations: the ten groups identified on the frieze were probably the ten tribes taking part in the anthippasia; on the frieze the Panathenaic festival is represented and the anthippasia took place during such a festival; the anthippasia was open to Athenians only, just as was the case of the apobates also represented on the frieze.
Athletic competitions | Parthenon freeze | anthippasia | Clistenic tribes | cavalry
The issue of Du 'l-Qarnayn («the two-horned») in Qur'an 18:82-98 has represented a source of great debate since the first centuries of Islam. The debate surrounds not only the identity of Du 'l-Qarnayn but also the sources of the Qur'anic story. On this question, the Muslim scholars were divided in two factions: the first one identified this character with Alexander the Great, the second faction thought instead that Du 'l-Qarnayn was an ancient Hymiarite king. In the light of the Greek, Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic documentation, the character of Du 'l-Qarnayn does seem not to be created by the Greek tradition: it appears rather to belong to the mythical heritage of the Semitic world. In particular, we can identify its origin in a South Arabian legend (of which many traces remain in the Arabic literature) whose protagonist is just a Hymiarite king called 'Du 'l-Qarnayn'.
Alexander the Great | Du 'l-Qarnayn | Qur'an | Ps.-Callisthenes | Syriac Legend of Alexander
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